New Tests Available
- Urea Breath Test
- There are various methods diagnosing Helicobactor pylori infection. In PATHLAB, we offer two types of tests, Urea Breath Test and H. pylori antibody test.
- The Urea Breath Test depends on the presence of live H. pylori bacteria in the stomach. Following the ingestion of a UBIT tablet containing 100mg of 13C-urea, the bacteria will metabolize the urea and produce 13CO2. The 13CO2 in the expired breath air is analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. A positive test indicates the presence of live bacteria. Therefore, the 13C-urea breath test can be used as a diagnostic test and as a test for cure following antibiotic therapy.
- Vitamin D
- Vitamin D is a steroid hormone involved in the intestinal absorption of calcium and the regulation of calcium homeostasis. It is essential for the formation and maintenance of strong healthy bones.
- Research has indicated that many chronic diseases such as cancer, high blood pressure, osteoporosis and several autoimmune diseases are linked to vitamin D deficiency.
- The most reliable clinical indicator of Vitamin D status is 25(OH)D because serum 25(OH)D levels reflect the body’s storage level of vitamin D, and 25(OH)D correlates with the clinical symptoms of vitamin D deficiency.
- Free PSA
- Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is detected in the serum of males with normal, hypertrophic and malignant prostate tissue. The serum level is elevated in only three medical conditions, prostatitis, benign prostatic hypertrophic and malignancy of the prostate gland.
- Free PSA is one of the PSA derivatives designed to increase the sensitivity of the PSA test in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer to help in decision on whether to proceed with a prostate biopsy.
- Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT)/ Neiserria Gonorrhoeae Test (NG)
- Chlamydia Trachomatis is a gram-negative bacterium that infects the columnar epithelium of the cervix, urethra, and rectum, as well as nongenital sites such as the lungs and eyes.
- Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections can disseminate to other areas of the body, which commonly causes synovium and skin infections.
- The cobas 4800 CT/NG Test is an in vitro nucleic acid amplification test for the qualitative detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT) and/or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in patient specimens. The Test utilizes amplification of target DNA by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid hybridization for the detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA. This test is intended to be used as a diagnostic as well as a screening tool in both symptomatic and asymptomatic populations.
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HIV Testing in Singapore
HIV testing in Singapore is tightly regulated by the Ministry of Health. Only approved medical laboratories using reagent from manufactures approved by the ministry are allowed to conduct the test. Beside that, the request for the test is governed by certain rules and regulation.
- When a HIV test is request, there must be a doctor to conduct a pre-HIV test counseling on receiving the report.
- In Singapore, HIV testing is divided into two phase, screening and confirmatory. The medical laboratories will do the screening test and sample with positive result will be sent to the HIV Reference Laboratory for the confirmation test. For those cases sent for the conformation test, the clinic will only receive the report from the HIV Reference Laboratory attached. There will be a delay of up to two weeks. This is because not every positive screening test will have a positive confirmation test.
- When the screening test is positive, a series of repeat tests is done and the same sample is sent for the confirmatory test. As a way to prevent errors or manipulation of result, the patient will not be recalled for additional blood sample. As such, the initial sample must be sufficient to accommodate all the testing required and the minimal volume is 6mls of plain blood or 6mls EDTA blood.
- HIV is a notifiable disease under the Infectious Disease act. Positive cases must notify the Communicable Disease Department not later than 72 hours from the time of diagnosis. Both the clinic and laboratories must do the notification using the standard notification forms.
- When sending the sample for HIV testing, the following patient information are compulsory.
- Name of Patient
- Date of Birth
- NRIC or Passport or Work Permit Number
- If foreign nationals, please indicate status of patient
- I. Singapore PR
- II. Work permit holder
- III. Long term social pass holder
- IV. Student pass holder
- Please indicate purpose for ordering the test
- I. Permit Application
- II. Permit Renewal
- III. Insurance
- Sample volumes for various type of test
Test Required Sample types and volumes HIV alone 6mls plain blood HIV + VDRL + Beta HCG 6mls plain blood HIV + Malaria Parasite 6mls EDTA blood HIV + VDRL + Malaria Parasite 6mls EDTA blood HIV + Other Group Test Group Test + extra 6mls in a separate tube
We will reject and discard the sample if the sample type is wrong or sample volume is insufficient.
Should the doctors at the clinics have difficulty in obtaining the necessary blood for the tests, they should refer the patients to our laboratory. The vacutainer system is designed for taking blood sample into multiple tubes with just one venepunture. We can arrange for training of the clinic staff in the use of the system if necessary.
6mls plain and EDTA tubes are available from our laboratory. Place your request for the tubes with our customer service assistants.
- For the following categories of patients, the HIV confirmatory test is free of charge:
- Work Permit applicants and holder
- Long Term Social Visitor
- S Pass
- Student Pass
- Singapore Permanent Residents
- E Pass
- For foreigners who do not belong to the above categories, HIV confirmatory test will be charged $139.10 cts inclusive of GST (correct at the time of this letter). In such a situation, our laboratory will automatically sent the sample for confimatory test and bill the clinic the said amount. We will not be asking for your permission to do so. Please make the necessary arrangement with the patient when you request for the HIV test.
This information is to highlight to clinic staff and patients the requirements of MOH regarding the HIV test. Please be fully aware of them and comply accordingly to avoid unnecessary problems.